5 Emerging Benefits of D-Ribose 

Grant Tinsley, PhD 

 D-ribose is a sugar molecule of vital importance. It is part of a person’s DNA and also  makes up part of the cells’ primary energy source, adenosine triphosphate or ATP. Some people  believe that D-ribose supplements can improve exercise and health performance. There are five  potential benefits of D-ribose. It may help recovery of energy stores in the cells because D-ribose  is a component of the main energy source of the cells, ATP. Also because of ATP, it may enhance  heart function in people with heart disease by improving energy production in the heart muscle.  D-ribose might be able to improve systems of certain pain disorders because of the link between  some pain disorders and problems of energy metabolism. It may benefit exercise performance  due to its important role in ATP. And lastly, D-ribose may also have the ability to improve muscle  function by recovering ATP levels in muscle tissue.  


Ribose: Energy-Boosting Heart Supporter or Sugar  Trap?  

Annie Price, CHHC 

D-ribose is naturally found in the human body and helps provide cells with energy.  Scientific studies show that D-ribose benefits and uses include it may help support heart health,  enhance exercise, help treat fibromyalgia and chronic fatigue syndrome, manage myoadenylate  deaminase deficiency symptoms, and boost skin health. A science review stated that this sugar  has the ability to enhance the recovery of ATP levels, improving myocardial energy levels. For  the enhancement in exercise capabilities, researchers concluded that people who used D-ribose,  the peak power output increased notably from the first day to the third day. One study was  conducted with people with fibromyalgia and chronic fatigue syndrome, and the results proved  that 66 percent of patients experienced improved sleep, improved energy, and decreased pain for  those diagnosed with fibromyalgia. People with Myaodenylate deaminase deficiency. (MAD)—a  metabolic disease that interferes with the ATP by muscle cells, recorded that taking D-ribose can  prevent symptoms of MAD. As for the purpose of skin health, a study tested D-ribose lotion on  women with wrinkles and uneven skin tones. The end result of the experiment concluded,  overall, 67 percent of the patients thought their skin looked noticeably better, improving the glow  and radiance of the skin. 


An Immunohistochemical Analysis to Validate the Rationale behind the Enhanced Immunogenicity of D Ribosylated Low Density Lipo-Protein

Firoz Akhter, M. Salman Khan, Sarika Singh, and Saheem Ahmad 

 D-ribose is a key component of a variety of biomolecules involved in many vital  metabolic pathways and is a naturally occurring sugar found in all living cells. In this study, LDL  or low density lipoprotein was glycated or attached with D-ribose to assess the immune complex  disposition in the kidney of rabbits immunized with glycated LDL; and furthermore, the  immunization of female rabbits. The results demonstrated that the female rabbits immunized  with D-ribose altered LDL induced antibodies. Researchers have shown that D-ribose causes  structural anxiety in the LDL resulting in the creation of neo-antigenic determinants which are  acknowledged as a non-self by the immune system, thereby breaking the immune tolerance  existing normally to self-antigens.  


Prevalence of auto-antibodies against D-ribose glycated-hemoglobin in diabetes mellitus 

Zeba Siddiqui, Mohammad Faisal, Abdul Rahman Alatar, and Saheem Ahmad 

For this study, it was hypothesized that D-ribose can induce structural perturbations in  hemoglobin, resulting in the formation of net-epitopes, thus provoking an auto-immune response,  and it may also be associated in the immuno-pathogenesis of type-2 diabetes linked  complications. Due to hyperglycemia, glycation of biological macromolecules promotes the  formation of advanced glycation end products of AGEs. It was already demonstrated in previous  studies that structural changes in hemoglobin by D-ribose may result into the generation of  immunogenic net-epitopes. In this study, researchers analyzed the widespread presence of  autoantibodies in diabetic subject’s sera against D-ribose glycated hemoglobin. It was confirmed  that autoantibodies in diabetic patients show significantly high binding capabilities with D-ribose  glycated hemoglobin as compared to its original form. The final findings of the study indicate  that the level of these autoantibodies may be used as a biomarker for advancement of diabetes.  


Regulation of Leukocyte Function by Citric Acid  Cycle Intermediates 

Naeem K. Patil, Julia K. Bohannon, Antonio Hernandez, Tazeen K. Patil, and Edward R.  Sherwood 

 D-ribose is a naturally occurring sugar found in the cells of the body that assist with ATP  production and especially in the mitochondria, essential in energy production. It has been proven  that supplementing D-ribsose can improve cellular processes when there is dysfunction in  mitochondria. It can bypass path of the pentose pathway to produce D-ribose-5-phospahte for the  production of energy. Therefore, D-ribose may help to restore adenine nucleotides to the cell,  thus serving as a potential therapeutic option for a variety of functional changes from disease or  injury.  


D-ribose: Potential clinical applications in congestive heart failure and diabetes, and its complications (Review)

Shuai Li, Juanjing Wang, Yutian Xiao, Li Zhang, Jinren Fang, Nanyang Yang, Zhixia  Zhang, Moussa Ide Nasser, and Hui Qin 

 D-ribose is a popular, necessary component of the skeletal, respiratory, and nervous  systems and may have many benefits to the human body when supplemented. Congestive heart  failure continues to be the leading cause of disease-linked death. Research has suggested that a  variety of supplements may be used to treat muscle weakness of the heart, recovery following  myocardial ischemia-reperfusion, and several complications of diabetes. In the case of  myocardial ischemia-reperfusion, to reduce the development of this injury, it was concluded that  D-ribose may directly speed up PRPP synthesis, which furthermore increases a certain amount of  D-ribose. As for using D-ribose to treat diabetes, it may be used as a medication to treat diabetic  complications, but the effects of the certain amount of concentration the body should be further  examined. In patients with early diabetes, evaluating D-ribose concentrations may be used to  predict the probability and range of diabetic complications. Overall, it may be used to improve  the quality of life of patients with diabetes and congestive heart failure. In addition, to enhance  muscle exercise intensity in athletes, D-ribose can also be used as an anti-fatigue medication.  


Cellular protection during oxidative stress: a potential role for D-ribose and antioxidants

Paul Addis , Linda M Shecterle, and John A St Cyr 

 As a normal product of cellular metabolism, ROS or reactive oxygen species are  continually produced; however, in situations of cellular stress, these levels can increase  significantly with the potential to cause damaging cellular structural and/or functional  consequences. In situations including hypoxia, ischemia, high-intensity exercise, and in many  other diseases, there is an drastic elevation occurring in these ROS. The supplementation of D ribose, enhances the recovery of high-energy phosphates following stress. During the cases of  ischemia and hypoxia, D-ribose may be vital in the breakdown of adenine nucleotides, which  thereby influences the following formation of xanthine and uric acid compounds. Both D-ribose  and reducing antioxidants, during times of oxidative stress, may provide a more ideal state of  cellular protection.  


Effect of D-ribose supplementation on delayed onset muscle soreness induced by plyometric exercise in college students

Wei Cao, Junqiang Qiu, Tianwei Cai, Longyan Yi, Dan Benardot, and Menghui  Zou 

 In this study, the effect of D-ribose supplementation on delayed onset muscle soreness or  DOMS was examined. In the experiment, 21 untrained male college students performed a lower limb plyometric exercise session to induce DOMS. Then, the subjects were placed randomly into  

the D-ribose group and the placebo group to guarantee equivalent body mass index and muscle  soreness. The students performed the same exercise session after a 14-day recovery period but  this time with the D-ribose group ingesting a certain amount of a solution containing D-ribose.  

The results indicated that in the D-ribose group, after the second exercise session, muscle  soreness was significantly lower than was experienced in the first exercise session. In  conclusion, this study suggested that the supplementation of D-ribose may induce alleviation in  the human population when exercise-induced delayed onset muscle soreness occurs.  


D-ribose ameliorates cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity by inhibiting renal inflammation in mice

Masaaki Ueki , Masaki Ueno, Jun Morishita, and Nobuhiro Maekawa 

Researchers conducted this study to determine the protective effects of D-ribose on  cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity. One of the most potent chemotherapeutic drugs, Cisplatin, can  produce side effects such as toxicity in the kidneys or nephrotoxicity. D-ribose, found in all  living cells, has anti-inflammatory effects in renal ischemia/reperfusion injury. In the test, 48  mice were divided into four groups: cisplatin, control, cisplatin + ribose, and ribose. Researchers  measured a variety of things: serum and renal tumor necrosis factor- a; renal monocyte  chemoattractant protein concentrations by enzyme associated immunosorbent assay; renal  expression of intercellular adhesion molecule by real-time polymerase chain reaction; serum  blood urea nitrogen and creatinine; and histological changes. In the end, cisplatin-induced renal  dysfunction and renal tubular necrosis were reduced in value by D-ribose treatment. For the  treatment of cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity, D-ribose may be a new therapeutic contender.  


Potential Clinical Benefits of D-ribose in Ischemic Cardiovascular Disease

Linda M Shecterle, Kathleen R Terry, and John A St. Cyr 

 Following, pre-clinical studies, D-ribose could play an important role in improving  myocardial energy levels and function in the area of ischemic cardiovascular diseases. To  maintain cell integrity and function, all cells require adequate adenosine triphosphate (ATP)  levels. Myocardial ischemia produces low levels of ATP which can alter normal function and  cellular energy. In pre-clinical and in-pilot studies, D-ribose, following ischemia conditions, has  been shown to enhance the recovery of ATP levels and help to improve left ventricular diastolic  dysfunction. D-ribose has demonstrated to have potential clinical benefits for acute and chronic  myocardial iscehmia conditions: helping congestive heart failure, identifying hibernating  myocardium, and during cardiovascular surgery. Further investigation is required into the effect  D-ribose has on ischemic cardiovascular disease.