Citric Acid Effects on Brain and Liver Oxidative Stress in Lipopolysaccharide-Treated Mice

Omar M.E. Abdel-Salam, Eman R. Youness, Nadia A. Mohammed, Safaa M. Youssef Morsy, Enayat A. Omara, and Amany A. Sleem 

Researchers studied the effect of citric acid on endotoxin-induced oxidative stress of the  brain and liver. The mice were given one peritoneal cavity dose of lipopolysaccharide or LPS. Citric acid is a weak organic acid found in citric fruits. Studies conducted indicated that citrate  decreases lipid peroxidation, down regulates inflammation, and it has been shown to reduce liver  cancer injury evoked in rats. The results indicated that there is an antioxidant and anti inflammatory effect for receiving citric acid orally at 1-2g/kg in brain tissue. The study  conducted suggests that citric acid might be useful for the treatment of toxic and inflammatory  conditions of the brain and liver tissues.

Citric Acid Pros & Cons: Is Citric Acid Harmful to the Body? 

Jillian Levy, CHHC 

Citric acid is one of the most common food additives and has been used in cosmetics and  many other products for its preservative and flavor enhancer properties. It can comes in forms  including dried powder, liquid form, or as a medication or supplement called citrate. Citric acid  is found in many fruits like lemons, oranges, limes, etc., plus many processed foods that have  acidic or sour tastes. It has been shown to have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and alkalizing  properties, but it has also shown to be irritating to some people who have acid reflux, sensitive  digestive systems, allergies, or sensitive skin. The potential benefits of citric acid: anti inflammatory and antioxidant effects, alkalizing effects, improve endothelial function, prevent  kidney stones, and support skin health. The potential cons of critic acid: may irritate skin, can  contain GMO ingredients, might worsen digestive pains, and it might be linked to mold  reactions.

Citric acid inhibits development of cataracts, proteinuria, and ketosis in streptozotocin (type 1) diabetic rats  

Ryoji Nagai, Mime Nagai, Satoko Shimasaki, John W. Baynes, and Yukio Fujiwara 

A study was conducted to measure the effect of citric acid on the development of diabetic  complications on streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Oral administration of citric acid showed  to delay the development of cataracts, prevented accumulation of advanced glycation end  products, and protected against albuminuria and ketosis. The results show that orally  administrating citric acid improves ketosis and in an animal model of type 1 diabetes, protects  against the development of diabetic complications. Researchers’ observations suggests that  citrate can contribute to the health of diabetic patients through the use of citrate supplementation  and a diet of fresh fruits.

What Is Citric Acid, and Is It Bad for You? 

Gavin Van De Walle, MS, RD 

Citric acid is found is many citric fruits like lemons, limes, oranges, grapefruits,  tangerines, pomelos, and many more. Citric acid is used in the food industry as a food additive to  boost acidity, enhance flavor, and preserve ingredients. It is used in medicines and dietary  supplements to help stabilize and preserve the active ingredients. For disinfecting and cleaning,  citric acid is useful in treating or preventing human norovirus. The health benefits of citrus acid: it metabolizes energy by helping your body transform food into usable energy; enhances nutrient  absorption by allowing the body to better absorb the bioavailability of minerals; and it may  protect against kidney stones by making your urine less likely to form stones.

The role of the citric acid cycle in cells of the immune system and its importance in sepsis, trauma, and burns  

E A Newsholme, P Newsholme, and R Curi

Recent studies have been conducted into the investigation of the fuel utilized, the  metabolism carried out, and the the importance of this metabolism for the cell biology of  lymphocytes and macrophages. The importance of the observation that both glucose and  glutamine are only partially oxidized by both types of cell have already been established.  Because of this, a new hypothesis was instituted to explain the high rates of partial oxidation of both fuels in lymphocytes and macrophages. Also, the importance of the glutamine in such cells  has led evidence to suggest that the source of glutamine in the body is that this is muscle. During  the condition of trauma, sepsis, surgery, and burns, the metabolic relationship between the cells  of the immune system and the tissue producing glutamine provides an explanation as to why  there are well-established changes in metabolism.

A Role for the Krebs Cycle Intermediate Citrate in Metabolic Reprogramming in Innate Immunity and Inflammation

Niamh C. Williams and Luke A. J. O’Neill 

The innate immunes system is the first line of defense against infection. Macrophages  and Dendritic Cells (DS’s) play the key roles for the initiation and resolution of the immune response. One consequence of the reprogramming of metabolic pathways upon activation is the  accumulation of both citrate and succinate because of the altercation of both Krebs cycle’s of  macrophages and dendritic cells. Also linked to macrophage and Dendritic cell activation is  citrate’s cytosolic metabolism to acetyl-coenzyme A, both of which is vital for fatty-acid  synthesis and protein acetylation. Research provides that citrate-derived itaconate has both  antibacterial and anti-inflammatory agents identifying citrate as an important metabolite for  dendritic cell and macrophage and may be receptive to therapeutic-focused medicines.

Effects of the food additive, citric acid, on kidney cells of mice

Xg Chen, Qx Lv, Ym Liu, and W Deng 

One study investigated the effects of citric acid injection on mouse kidney. The  method included using forty healthy mice and dividing them into four different groups including one control group an three citric acid-treated groups: low dose, middle dose, and high dose. After a week, kidney tissues where examined for biochemical, histological, and molecular properties. It was found that the difference between any treated group was not statistically notable. The  experiment concluded that the administration of citric acid may cause renal toxicity in mice.

Regulation of Leukocyte Function by Citric Acid  Cycle Intermediates  

Naeem K. Patil, Julia K. Bohannon, Antonio Hernandez, Tazeen K. Patil, and Edward R  Sherwood  

D-ribose is a naturally occurring sugar found in the cells of the body that assist with ATP  production and especially in the mitochondria, essential in energy production. It has been proven  that supplementing D-ribose can improve cellular processes when there is dysfunction in  mitochondria. It can bypass path of the pentose pathway to produce D-ribose-5-phospahte for the  production of energy. Therefore, D-ribose may help to restore adenine nucleotides to the cell,  thus serving as a potential therapeutic option for a variety of functional changes from disease or  injury.