Citric Acid Effects on Brain and Liver Oxidative Stress in Lipopolysaccharide-Treated Mice
Omar M.E. Abdel-Salam, Eman R. Youness, Nadia A. Mohammed, Safaa M. Youssef Morsy, Enayat A. Omara, and Amany A. Sleem
Researchers studied the effect of citric acid on endotoxin-induced oxidative stress of the brain and liver. The mice were given one peritoneal cavity dose of lipopolysaccharide or LPS. Citric acid is a weak organic acid found in citric fruits. Studies conducted indicated that citrate decreases lipid peroxidation, down regulates inflammation, and it has been shown to reduce liver cancer injury evoked in rats. The results indicated that there is an antioxidant and anti inflammatory effect for receiving citric acid orally at 1-2g/kg in brain tissue. The study conducted suggests that citric acid might be useful for the treatment of toxic and inflammatory conditions of the brain and liver tissues.
Citric Acid Pros & Cons: Is Citric Acid Harmful to the Body?
Jillian Levy, CHHC
Citric acid is one of the most common food additives and has been used in cosmetics and many other products for its preservative and flavor enhancer properties. It can comes in forms including dried powder, liquid form, or as a medication or supplement called citrate. Citric acid is found in many fruits like lemons, oranges, limes, etc., plus many processed foods that have acidic or sour tastes. It has been shown to have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and alkalizing properties, but it has also shown to be irritating to some people who have acid reflux, sensitive digestive systems, allergies, or sensitive skin. The potential benefits of citric acid: anti inflammatory and antioxidant effects, alkalizing effects, improve endothelial function, prevent kidney stones, and support skin health. The potential cons of critic acid: may irritate skin, can contain GMO ingredients, might worsen digestive pains, and it might be linked to mold reactions.
Citric acid inhibits development of cataracts, proteinuria, and ketosis in streptozotocin (type 1) diabetic rats
Ryoji Nagai, Mime Nagai, Satoko Shimasaki, John W. Baynes, and Yukio Fujiwara
A study was conducted to measure the effect of citric acid on the development of diabetic complications on streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Oral administration of citric acid showed to delay the development of cataracts, prevented accumulation of advanced glycation end products, and protected against albuminuria and ketosis. The results show that orally administrating citric acid improves ketosis and in an animal model of type 1 diabetes, protects against the development of diabetic complications. Researchers’ observations suggests that citrate can contribute to the health of diabetic patients through the use of citrate supplementation and a diet of fresh fruits.
What Is Citric Acid, and Is It Bad for You?
Gavin Van De Walle, MS, RD
Citric acid is found is many citric fruits like lemons, limes, oranges, grapefruits, tangerines, pomelos, and many more. Citric acid is used in the food industry as a food additive to boost acidity, enhance flavor, and preserve ingredients. It is used in medicines and dietary supplements to help stabilize and preserve the active ingredients. For disinfecting and cleaning, citric acid is useful in treating or preventing human norovirus. The health benefits of citrus acid: it metabolizes energy by helping your body transform food into usable energy; enhances nutrient absorption by allowing the body to better absorb the bioavailability of minerals; and it may protect against kidney stones by making your urine less likely to form stones.
The role of the citric acid cycle in cells of the immune system and its importance in sepsis, trauma, and burns
E A Newsholme, P Newsholme, and R Curi
Recent studies have been conducted into the investigation of the fuel utilized, the metabolism carried out, and the the importance of this metabolism for the cell biology of lymphocytes and macrophages. The importance of the observation that both glucose and glutamine are only partially oxidized by both types of cell have already been established. Because of this, a new hypothesis was instituted to explain the high rates of partial oxidation of both fuels in lymphocytes and macrophages. Also, the importance of the glutamine in such cells has led evidence to suggest that the source of glutamine in the body is that this is muscle. During the condition of trauma, sepsis, surgery, and burns, the metabolic relationship between the cells of the immune system and the tissue producing glutamine provides an explanation as to why there are well-established changes in metabolism.
A Role for the Krebs Cycle Intermediate Citrate in Metabolic Reprogramming in Innate Immunity and Inflammation
Niamh C. Williams and Luke A. J. O’Neill
The innate immunes system is the first line of defense against infection. Macrophages and Dendritic Cells (DS’s) play the key roles for the initiation and resolution of the immune response. One consequence of the reprogramming of metabolic pathways upon activation is the accumulation of both citrate and succinate because of the altercation of both Krebs cycle’s of macrophages and dendritic cells. Also linked to macrophage and Dendritic cell activation is citrate’s cytosolic metabolism to acetyl-coenzyme A, both of which is vital for fatty-acid synthesis and protein acetylation. Research provides that citrate-derived itaconate has both antibacterial and anti-inflammatory agents identifying citrate as an important metabolite for dendritic cell and macrophage and may be receptive to therapeutic-focused medicines.
Effects of the food additive, citric acid, on kidney cells of mice
Xg Chen, Qx Lv, Ym Liu, and W Deng
One study investigated the effects of citric acid injection on mouse kidney. The method included using forty healthy mice and dividing them into four different groups including one control group an three citric acid-treated groups: low dose, middle dose, and high dose. After a week, kidney tissues where examined for biochemical, histological, and molecular properties. It was found that the difference between any treated group was not statistically notable. The experiment concluded that the administration of citric acid may cause renal toxicity in mice.
Regulation of Leukocyte Function by Citric Acid Cycle Intermediates
Naeem K. Patil, Julia K. Bohannon, Antonio Hernandez, Tazeen K. Patil, and Edward R Sherwood
D-ribose is a naturally occurring sugar found in the cells of the body that assist with ATP production and especially in the mitochondria, essential in energy production. It has been proven that supplementing D-ribose can improve cellular processes when there is dysfunction in mitochondria. It can bypass path of the pentose pathway to produce D-ribose-5-phospahte for the production of energy. Therefore, D-ribose may help to restore adenine nucleotides to the cell, thus serving as a potential therapeutic option for a variety of functional changes from disease or injury.