Benefits of Drinking Water for Skin, Digestion, Weight  & More 

Jillian Levy, CHHC 

 Drinking water is essential for the body and is important to help maintain normal function  of immune and cardiovascular systems, balance electrolytes, support digestion, and efficiently  disperse nutrients throughout the body. The benefits of drinking water includes that it prevents  dehydration, supports digestion and detoxification, keeps calorie intake in check, improves the  appearance of the skin, hair, and eyes, and helps control hunger and support weight loss. Other  benefits of water are improved circulation, concentration, appetite control, and energy. According  to Harvard Medical School and the Institute of Medicine, it is recommend that the average  generally healthy person or adult should drink anywhere from six to 13 cups of water per day.

7 Science-Based Health Benefits of Drinking Enough  Water 

Joe Leech, MS and Jillian Kubala, MS, RD 

 Staying hydrated is very important for overall health and survival, and there are many  benefits of water. The body’s physical performance can suffer if it is not hydrated; this can lead  to reduced motivation, altered body temperature control, and increased fatigue. Hydration  significantly affects energy levels and brain function. It it reported that even mild hydration can  decrease brain response. Water can boost the metabolic rate, enabling the body to lose weight.  One of the most common symptoms of water, research shows, is headaches and constipation, so  staying hydrated may help prevent and treat headaches and help to relieve some constipation. A  higher intake of water increases the amount of urine the body is passing which can help pass and  break down kidney stones more easily. Also, water can help prevent hangovers because alcohol  makes the body lose more water than the body takes in, which can lead to dehydration.

Does dietary fluid intake affect skin hydration in  healthy humans? A systematic literature review 

M Akdeniz , T Tomova-Simitchieva, G Dobos , U Blume-Peytavi, and J Kottner

There is currently a lack of evidence of the skincare benefits from drinking increased  amounts of water; however, to research the associations between daily water intake and skin  hydration have gained more attention. Many studies were investigated to determine the affects of  fluid intake on the skin for healthy adults, and signs of dryness and roughness were observed in  the studies. The results concluded that the elasticity and extensibility of skin increased slightly  and dietary water intake can increase startup corneum hydration. The links between daily water  intake and sebum content, transepidermal water loss, and skin surface pH were undetermined.  More research is required on wether increased fluid intake can improve skin dryness.

Effect of electrolyzed high-pH alkaline water on blood viscosity in healthy adults

Joseph Weidman, Ralph E. Holsworth, Jr., Bradley Brossman, Daniel J. Cho,  John St.Cyr, and Gregory Fridman 

 A clinical trail assessed individuals after exercise-induced dehydration to determine the  effect of high-Ph water on four different biomarkers. To better understand rehydration after  strenuous exercise, more parameters are needed. The experiment included one hundred healthy  adults which required all persons to exercise in a warm environment until their weight decreased  by a normally accepted level. The individuals were randomized to rehydrate with high-Ph  electrolyzed water or standard water and were assessed for an extra two hour recovery period to  determine any potential variations within the measured parameters. The results showed that  drinking high-pH alkaline water reduced systolic blood viscosity notably more than normal,  standard water after exercise-induced dehydration.

Negative, Null and Beneficial Effects of Drinking Water on Energy Intake, Energy Expenditure, Fat Oxidation and Weight Change in Randomized Trials: A Qualitative Review

Jodi J. D. Stookey

 Determined in randomized controlled trials, there are varied effects drinking water has on  energy intake, fat oxidation, energy expenditure, and weight change in adults and/or children.  The results concluded that drinking water: increases energy expenditure in metabolically inflexible, obese people; decreases energy intake when food intake is ad libitum or whenever  desired; and increases fat oxidation when blood carbohydrate or insulin concentrations are not  elevated. Further research is needed to optimize drinking water initiatives.

The effect of hydration state and energy balance on innate immunity of a desert reptile

Karla T Moeller, Michael W Butler, and Dale F DeNardo 

Water is a critical resource with great implications for organismal ecology, but the effect  of osmotic state on immune function has not received enough attention. This study of the Gila  monster, Heloderma suspectum, assessed the independents effects of osomotic state, digestive  state, and energy balance on innate immune function. Researchers observed that Gila monsters  have a more vigorous innate immune function during periods of dehydration. They found in both  lab and field studies that dehydration increased recovery and agglutination or the clumping of  cells abilities. The osmotic state may have a greater affect on immune function as compared to  energy availability. However, there is a need for further research into the effects of hydric state  on immune function.

The influence of drinking-water pollution with heavy  metal on the expression of IL-4 and IFN-γ in mice by  real-time polymerase chain reaction 

Rayhaneh Radbin, Fatemeh Vahedi, and JamshidKhan Chamani 

 One of the most significant water pollutants are heavy elements and their negative  adverse affects have been determined. Researchers aimed to examine the effects of two heavy  elements, lead and copper, on expression of interleukin-4 and interferon-gamma as cellular and  humoral immunity biomarkers. In this study, mice were tested and given drinking water which  contained either lead or copper salts for a two week period. The results showed that the weight of  the mice tested with copper-ionized water, however considered not drastic, increased. Also, there  was no difference reported in the food uptake and volume of water found in the different mice  groups. This study demonstrates that drinking-water with heavy metal pollutants results in the 

inconsistency of natural cytokines balances, therefore resulting in a negative effect on immune  system.

Water supplementation after dehydration improves  judgment and decision-making performance 

Olivia C. Patsalos and Volker Thoma 

 It has been reported that dietary water supplementation and dehydration affect both  cognitive performance and mood in children and adults on many different tasks including  attention, memory access, executive function, and speeded responses. In one study, a number of  adult participants were offered a certain amount of water before testing, following fasting from  the previous night on two different occasions. The results concluded that water supplementation  improved performance on many tasks linked with decision-making and cognitive reflection in  judgment.

Water, Hydration and Health

Barry M. Popkin, Kristen E. D’Anci, and Irwin H. Rosenberg 

 Water is the most important and critical nutrient enabling the body to thrive. Because of  large proportions of fluids coming from caloric beverages, as a result, water has never been more  important for the prevention of nutrition-related noncommunicable diseases. In terms of physical  performance, water can reverse fatigue, increase motivation, boost endurance, improve  thermoregulatory capability, increase perceived effort, and also reduce oxidative stressed induced  by exercise and dehydration. Dehydration can alter cognitive performance and can impair  performance on tasks such as arithmetic ability, short-term memory, perceptual discrimination,  psychomotor skills, and visuomotor tracking; however, rehydration may be able to combat such  deficits. Kidney function is vital in the regulation of water balance and blood pressure, but water  excretion via the kidney removes solutes from the blood. Good hydration is also linked with the  decrease in urinary track infections, hypertension, fatal coronary heart disease, and many more.  More evidence is needed to determine the association between good hydration with reductions in  constipation, exercise induced asthma, hypertonic dehydration in infants, and hyperglycemia in  diabetics.

Why Is Water Important? 16 Reasons to Drink Up Natalie Butler, R.D., L.D. and Natalie Silve 

Water takes up most of the body weight and has many important functions. These  functions include it help create saliva, regulate body temperature, maximize physical  performance, prevent constipation, aid in digestion, better absorb nutrients, help weight loss,  improve blood oxygen circulation, combat illness, boost energy, aid in cognitive function,  improve mood, and help keep skin glowing. It also protects the spinal cord, tissues, and joints,  help excrete waste through perspiration, urination, and defecation, and overall, prevent  dehydration. Research recommends that men should drink 15.5 cups of waters and women  should drink 11.5 cups daily for optimal health.

Drinking water pollutants may affect the immune system: concerns regarding COVID-19 health effects

Natalia Quinete and Rachel Ann Hauser-Davis 

The COVID-19 pandemic impacts the planet in a significant way. Due to the uncreased  use of plastic waste and disinfectants, there is much concern for the impact it has environmental  and human health; especially through drinking water. There are some major pollutants in water  that are reported to be immune-toxic and could likely compromise the immune response of  humans, specifically in regards to people exposed to COVID-19. Researchers found that the  contaminants in some drinking water including metals, PFAS, ad plasticizers may exasperate  COVID-19 respiratory symptoms. In addition, other studies demonstrated that these  containments can increase pathogen immune response and resistance to antibiotics. Further  research into the study is needed to focus on the long-term exposure these contaminants have on  the human body.